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男女生该跑相同距离?听听美国教练怎么说!

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发布时间:2015-01-23 10:07   华奥星空

  The Iowa Girls High School Athletic Union’s (IGHSAU’s) board of directors voted last week to extend the distance of girls cross country races from 4K to 5K, the same distance the boys run, the Newtown Daily News reports. With that change, there are now only six states in which at least some of the girls race shorter than boys at the state championship level.

  据Newtown Daily News报道,爱荷华州女子高中运动联盟的(IGHSAU)董事会上周投票决定延长女生的越野长跑距离,距离从4K变到5K,这与男生的跑步距离相同。随着这种变化,现在只有六个州中的一些州冠军级别比赛中女生的距离比男生的短。
 

  Mike Dick, executive director of the IGHSAU, told Runner’s World Newswire that coaches in Iowa resisted the change to the longer race distance for girls for a number of years out of fear that it would decrease participation numbers. He said that an increasing numbers of Iowa’s high school girls have been participating in 5K road races during their off season, increasing their comfort with the distance.

  IGHSAU(爱荷华州女子高中运动联盟)的执行董事Mike Dick告诉跑者世界新闻专线,爱荷华州的教练们抵制这种比赛距离的变化是因为担心会降低参与长跑的女生数量。他说,在休赛期间爱荷华州的高中女生已经有越来越多人参加5K公路赛,这增加了她们对这个距离的适应性。
 

  “While Iowa has not been challenged, several neighboring states have had inquiry from Civil Liberties groups with regard to equity,” said Dick. “So trying to be proactive for our sport and its athletes, it just seemed like the right time to make this change.”

  “尽管爱荷华州并没有受到质疑,一些周边州不得不从公民自由团体质询有关平等的问题,”Dick说。 “所以我想为我们的运动和运动员获得主动权,现在看起来正是做这些改变的时候。”
 

  One of those neighboring states is Wisconsin, where girls made the jump in race distance from 4K to 5K last fall. Marcy Thurwachter, assistant director of the Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association (WIAA), told Newswire that, although the move had been discussed for many years, the majority of coaches opposed the switch, saying the shorter distance was better for girls’ development and citing their fear of decreased participation numbers.

  其中一个邻州是威斯康星州,在那里的女生去年秋天开始比赛距离从4K变到5K。威斯康星州校际运动协会(WIAA)助理总监Marcy Thurwachter告诉新闻专线,尽管此举曾连续被讨论多年,但大部分教练持反对态度,认为短距离更有利于女生运动的发展并降低因为(对距离的)恐惧感带来的参与人数的降低。
 

  When the WIAA received a complaint from the Office of Civil Rights in the spring of 2014, the discussion was reopened. The complaint charged that girls were being discriminated against because they were not allowed to race as far as boys. After considering information from both sides, the WIAA, in part out of fear of legal action, decided to make the switch.

  当WIAA在2014年春天收到民事权利办公室的投诉,这个讨论又重新开始。投诉指责女生受到歧视,是因为她们不允许跟男生一样跑相同距离的比赛。WIAA考虑双方的意见后决定做出这样的转变,部分原因是出于对法律行动的担忧。
 

  In Kansas, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, girls run 4K, while boys run 5K. In Oklahoma and Texas, girls from the smaller schools run 3.2K but girls at the state’s larger schools run 5K, while boys from schools of all sizes run 5K.

  在堪萨斯州,明尼苏达州,北达科他州和南达科他州,女生跑4K,而男生跑5K。在俄克拉何马州和得克萨斯州,在较小规模学校的女生跑3.2K,但在州里规模较大的学校女生跑5K,而无论学校规模大小男生都跑5K。
 

  This discrepancy also exists at the collegiate and professional levels. At the NCAA Cross Country Championships, men race 10K and women race 6K. At the U.S. and World Cross Country Championships, men race 12K and women race 8K. In track and field, women did not run longer than 1,500 meters at the Olympic Games until 1984, and the women’s 3000-meter steeplechase was added only in 2008.

  这种差异也存在于大学和专业水平。在NCAA越野锦标赛,男子比赛是10K而女子比赛只有6K。在美国和世界越野锦标赛,男子比赛是12K而女子比赛是8K。在田径场上,直到1984年前奥运会上女子没有超过1500米的比赛,女子3000米障碍赛也仅在2008年才出现。
 

  In states that have stuck with different race distances for boys and girls, the most frequently cited reason is that coaches are resisting the change.

  在那些坚持男生女生应该跑不同距离的原因中,最经常被引用的原因是教练抵制这种变化。
 

  Francine Martin, assistant executive director of the Kansas State High School Activities Association (KSHSAA), told Newswire, “The KSHSAA is an association of member schools. The member schools and their coaches have the ability to determine the race distances in cross country. The majority of the schools feel the 4K distance for girls allows for better participation and have not requested the distance for girls be increased to a longer distance.”

  堪萨斯州立高中活动协会(KSHSAA)助理执行主任Francine Marti向新闻专线透露,“KSHSAA是成员学校的协会组织。成员学校和他们的教练有权利决定越野比赛的距离。大部分学校认为4K距离可以使女生可以更好地参与其中,同时并没有要求增加女生的跑步距离。”
 

  There is at least some support for a change in the state, however, as evidenced by the existence of the Facebook group, “Let 'Em Run: Kansas Girls for 5K.”

  现在至少在(堪萨斯州)里对这个的变化有一定支持,无论如何,Facebook群的存在证明了这点,“跑起来:堪萨斯女生的5K。”
 

  John Krogstrand, assistant executive director of the South Dakota High School Activities Association (SDHSAA), told Newswire that his state’s decision to maintain the differential is partially due to the fact that a discrepancy also exists at the collegiate level.

  南达科他州高中活动协会(SDHSAA)助理执行主任John Krogstrand告诉新闻专线,他的州决定保持差别是由于这样的不符也存在于大学水平。
 

  Krogstrand also said that, because South Dakota allows seventh and eighth graders to run at the varsity level, there’s concern that 5K races would be too much for the younger runners. He also cited the fact that other sports have separate rules for girls and boys, specifically ball size in basketball, and hurdle height and the weight of throwing implements in track and field.

  Krogstrand还表示,由于南达科他州允许七年级和八年级学生参加大学水平比赛,她们认为5K比赛对这些小跑者来说过于长了。他还列举一些事实,其他的运动男生和女生都有单独的规则,特别是篮球大小,跨栏高度和田径投掷工具的重量。
 

  At the same time, Krogstrand acknowledged that change could be on the way.

  与此同时,Krogstrand承认变化可能即将到来。
 

  “We are in the process of reviewing our race distances, as we see that many of the other states that run different lengths are considering changes," he said. "No official action is proposed at this point, but we are aware of the national discussion and will continue to review the topic, much as we do with all of our sports and activities, on an annual basis.”

  “我们正在审视之前的比赛距离,我们发现许多跑不同长度距离的州正在考虑改变,”他说,“在这一点上官方没有行动,但我们都知道国家性的话题将继续被讨论以及审视,就像我们基于每年为其他运动所付出的那样。“
 

  No one interviewed for this article was able to say for sure why the discrepancies existed in the first place. No one used the word "sexism," but it almost certainly came into play when the race distances were first determined in most states, in the 1970s and 1980s. However, to some extent coaches have gotten used to the status quo and have resisted change.

  没有人在接受采访时因为这个话题能够肯定地说,为什么将存在差异摆在首位。没有人用“性别歧视”这个词,但在20世纪70年代和80年代,当比赛距离在大多数州首次确定时这个词肯定发挥了作用。但是,在一定程度上教练已经习惯于现状,抵制变革。
 

  The fear that participation numbers would drop if girls’ race distances increased appears to be unwarranted, at least on a mass level. In 2012, when Texas’ race distance increased for girls at the larger schools, participation dropped slightly, from 28,096 to 27,689, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS). However, the fluctuation was similar to the normal year-to-year fluctuations in the state, and the girls’ participation number remained higher than the boys’.

  如果女生比赛距离的增加导致参与人员数下降的担心似乎是毫无根据的,至少在大众层面是这样的。2012年根据州高中协会全国联合会(NFHS)统计,当德州在规模较大的学校增加了女生跑步的距离,参与人数从28096略有下降到27689。然而,这种波动幅度与往年相比处在正常状态,并且女生的参与人数仍比男生要高。
 

  Looking at the slightly longer term, girls in Connecticut moved from 4K to 5K in 2008, and girls’ participation numbers continued to increase for the first three years of the change, and the fluctuations weren't significantly different compared to other points in time.

  纵观整个时期,2008年康涅狄格州的女生从4K变到5K的距离,女孩的参与人数在前三年持续增加的这些变化,波动相较于其他的时间点并没有显著的不同。
 

  In addition to the arguments already cited, some in favor of girls running a shorter distance have cited concern about the amount of extra time the longer distance would add to cross country meets, in which there are often multiple races for runners who attend schools of different sizes. Some also cite concern about increased injury rates, if training is increased.

  除了已经提到的争论,一些有利于女生跑较短距离的都列举了有关总时间的延长会在越野跑中出现,其中有许多选手参加学校不同大小的比赛。有些人还举出因为训练量的增加导致的受伤几率的增加。
 

  Additional arguments in favor of making the jump to 5K include not wanting to send girls the message that they run shorter because they’re not as physically capable as boys; that it’s simpler to have one course that both boys and girls can use; that some college coaches like to see 5K times over 4K times, because they’re a better predictor of how a runner might fare over the collegiate distance of 6K; and to better prepare runners who want to run at the collegiate level.

  更多的争论点在于变成5K的距离后他们不想让女孩得到她们之所以跑的距离短是因为她们从生理条件上不如男生这样一条信息,更简单的方式是男生女生有着同样一门课程;一些大学教练喜欢看5K胜过4K,是因为他们是更好的关于跑者如何适应超过大学6K距离水平的预测专家;并更好地帮助跑者准备适应大学水平。
 

  Sean Cleary, who coaches a highly successful collegiate program at West Virginia University and is currently the United States Track & Field and Cross Country Coaches Association’s (USTFCCCA’s) Division I cross country president, said he would welcome a change at the collegiate level.

  Sean Cleary,是一个在西弗吉尼亚大学非常成功的大学课程教练,目前是美国田径和越野教练协会(USTFCCCA的)第一级联赛的主席。他说,他希望这个变化发生在大学水平的联赛。
 

  “For me it's simple. Cross Country is its own very unique sport that, while connected with track and field, is uniquely different. There should be a distinct difference between the two events,” Cleary told Newswire. “I can assure you, women can and do train as hard as men. If they train as hard, shouldn't a true distance runner be given the opportunity to use their strengths to drop a true middle-distance runner before it's time to kick? I am 100 percent in favor of the move up in distance for women.”

  “对我来说这很简单。越野虽然与田径相关,但自身是一项非常独特的运动。这两个事件之间是有明显差异的,” Cleary告诉新闻专线。 “我可以向你保证,女性可以达到男性训练的强度。如果他们训练的强度够大,当比赛开始前难道不是一个真正的长跑运动员通过给予的机会并利用自己的优势赢了一个真正的中长跑选手?我100%赞成女子跑步距离的增加。”
 

  However, some argue that, just because the men do it, racing a given distance doesn’t mean that it’s the “right” decision or that women should follow suit.

  然而,一些人认为,只是因为男性去跑给定的距离并不意味着它是“正确”的决定,或者说女性应该去效仿做同样的事情。
 

  Victoria Mitchell, director of track and field and cross country at the University at Buffalo, told Newswire, “I do not feel there is any injustice in the sense of women are ‘not capable’ of running the 8K/10K distance. I do not believe there is the old-school thought that women are not able to handle the distance.”

  布法罗大学田径和越野主任Victoria Mitchell告诉新闻专线,“我不觉得从某种意义上说女子‘没有能力’跑8k/10k的距离有什么不公平。我不同意那些老派的人认为女性不能够跑这样的距离。”
 

  Andrea Grove-McDonough, who coached the University of Iowa women to a runner-up finish at the NCAA Cross Country Championships in 2014, said, "It's not all that long ago people believed that women were not capable of handling the longer distance races, and along those lines, it really hasn't been that long [since] women at the collegiate level made the jump from 5K to 6K," she said of the change that took effect in 2000.

  Andrea Grove-McDonough,2014年在爱荷华州的大学执教女子队并在NCAA越野锦标赛获得亚军,说:“不久以前人们认为女子不能够跑更长距离的比赛,从此来看,女子大学水平从5K到6K的距离真的还没有那么长的时间。”她说这个变化发生在2000年。
 

  Grove-McDonough pointed out that, because coaches are the ones influencing the decisions about which distances are run, they are not always looking at the big picture.

  Grove-McDonough指出,因为那些教练会影响跑步距离的决定,他们并不在意整体情况。
 

  "Unfortunately, the problem with any discussion on the issue of the women's distance is a large majority of the time, you are going to get a perspective or opinion that is self-serving," she told Newswire. "The way things stand right now, too many of us look at it simply from a 'how would this affect me and my program' [standpoint] rather than an overall view [of] it would ultimately be better for women and for our sport overall."

  “不幸的是,对女子跑步距离问题的任何讨论绝大多数时候你会得到一个观点或主张那就是自私,”她告诉新闻专线。 “现在事情的问题是,太多的人看它只是从‘这会怎样影响我和我的项目’(角度来看),而不是从一个整体的观点[中],最终的目的是为了女性和我们的运动更好(这个角度来看)。”
 

  (原标题:In Iowa, Girls Will Now Race as Far as Boys 原文链接:www.runnersworld.com/high-school/in-iowa-girls-will-now-race-as-far-as-boys 译:谢悦)

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