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教你的大脑去相信你的训练

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发布时间:2015-04-21 10:10   华奥户外

      

       What if I told you that running well is all in your head? 假如我告诉你跑的快全依赖你的大脑你会相信么?

  You probably wouldn't believe me. You might point out that you can't think your way to a good marathon on poor training. Or command your legs to run faster when the bear jumps on your back. Or wish yourself a perfect ectomorphic running body like the world's best distance runners.

  你或许不会相信我。你会举出几个不可能的事例,在一个简陋的训练环境下培养出一名优秀的马拉松运动员。或是当熊已经快扑到你的背上时控制好你的脚跑得更快一些。或是你希望自己拥有像世界最优秀的长跑运动员一样完美且适合跑步的身体。

  And you'd be right. But you'd also be missing the point.

  然而你是对的。但你也遗漏了几点。

  It's not that good physical training isn't essential to running. It's that your brain ultimately determines how much of that training you'll be allowed to use. It does this by monitoring your body's fuel levels, temperature, hydration and other markers of fatigue and tissue damage, and then shutting down muscle fiber recruitment and other systems when it perceives imminent damage to your body.

  这并不表示体能训练对于跑步不重要。而是说明大脑最终决定了你的训练量。大脑通过监测你身体的热量标准、温度、水分和导致疲劳和组织损伤的其他因素,当它感知到即将会损坏你的身体时,就立刻关闭你的肌纤维修复和其他系统。

  There are many theories of fatigue. The peripheral fatigue model, which dominated for 100 years, holds that fatigue occurs when muscles begin to fail in a way that will ultimately lead to physiological catastrophe (i.e., you'll slow down or stop). The central governor model, proposed in 1997 by Timothy Noakes, a professor of exercise and sport science and author of Lore of Running, proposes that fatigue is an emotion generated by your brain to protect your body–sensing imminent danger to your organs, your brain decreases muscle fiber recruitment. Most experienced runners favor a third model, in which a combination of the brain's subconscious regulation and our own conscious evaluation of physical and emotional fatigue dictates our pace.

  有许多关于疲劳的理论。神经末梢疲劳模型理论,这个理论已经主导了100年之久,它认为疲劳是由于肌肉开始衰退,最终导致生理上异常(比如:你会放慢速度或是停止)。中央管理模型理论,于1997年由运动和体育科学教授《跑步的学问》的作者蒂莫西•诺克斯发布,它提出疲劳是一种情绪,是由大脑所产生用来保护你的身体 ------ 它能感应到身体器官迫在眉睫的危险,并让你的大脑减少肌纤维的补充。大多数有经验的跑者喜欢第三套模型理论,结合大脑潜意识管理和自身有意识的生理以及心理层面的疲劳评估,以此来决定我们的步伐。

  But even runners who accept that the brain exerts some subconscious regulation are often unaware of the extent of that control. A 2004 study found that cyclists who rinsed their mouths with a sports drink for five seconds and then spit it out completed a 40K time trial faster than a control group. A 2009 follow-up study documented a 3 percent performance improvement. And a 2013 study using a combination carb-caffeine drink demonstrated improved sprinting ability. In all three studies, the brain altered physical performance based upon the false belief that an energy source had been ingested.

  即使跑者能接受大脑产生一些潜意识的监管,但他们往往在一定控制范围是没有意识的。2004年的一项研究发现,自行车运动员用运动饮料,梳口五秒后吐掉,他们完成40公里的时间比实验对照组要短。2009年的后续研究记录表明这样做有3%的竞技水平提升。2013年的一项研究发现加入碳水化合物和咖啡因的混合饮料被证明能提高短跑能力。在三个研究中,大脑提高竞技水平被错误的认为是由于能量被摄取了。

  Here are five strategies to persuade your brain to ease up on the regulation:

  这儿有五个策略去“说服”你的大脑减少监管:

  Race-effort repetitions: These teach your brain that the effort is manageable. Make the workout challenging enough to simulate the fatigue you'll encounter during the mid-to-latter stages of the race.
        竞赛-努力 循环重复:这样子教会你的大脑,努力是可控制的。训练时加入足够的挑战来模拟疲劳,测试你将在赛跑中程和后程中会遭遇到疲劳状况。
       "Down a quart" training: An endurance race results in depleted glycogen stores and dehydration. Leave the fuel belt at home during training runs so that your brain can acclimate to these conditions.

 “低于一夸脱”的训练:一次拉力赛可以消耗你的糖原储存并使你产生脱水。在训练期间把装水袋留在家里,这样你的大脑可以逐渐适应这些情况。

  Extended runs: If you're having trouble increasing your mileage incrementally, add 25 to 50 percent more volume (miles or minutes) to a single, normal-distance run. You'll suffer, but you'll be amazed how much easier a mere 10 to 20 percent increase will feel the next time out.

  扩充跑: 如果你在逐量递增跑步的训练中遇到困难,你可以在单独一次正常距离中增加百分之二十五或五十的量。你将会遭受痛苦,但你会惊讶下次如果你增加百分之十或是二十的量的时候会轻松很多。

  Negative-split runs: For half marathoners and marathoners, run at least part of the second half of your long run at race effort.

  后段加速跑:对于半程和全程马拉松运动员,在至少一半的比赛路程中你要全力奔跑。

  Tuneup races: Use tuneup races to convince your brain that your body can handle a hard race effort.

  Your brain is out to protect you. But it's not unreasonable. Your job is to show it that you're trustworthy. And then, like a proud parent handing over the keys to a responsible teenager, it will reward you with significant performance improvement.

  预演比赛:用预演比赛来向你的大脑证明,你的身体可以应对艰难的比赛。你的大脑会设法保护你。但这不是不合理的。你的目的是向它表明你是值得信赖的。然后,像一个自豪的家长将钥匙移交到一个负责任的少年一样,大脑将回馈你在表现上显著的进步。

  (原文标题:Mind Control 原文链接:www.runnersworld.com/race-training/mind-control 翻译:朱梓洋)

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