当前位置: 华奥户外 >>海外视线

海外视线:跑步与呼吸

0
发布时间:2015-04-28 15:23   华奥户外

  Just before you crest a hill or reach the end of a speed interval, your lungs go into overdrive. Your breath becomes shallow and rapid. You think if only you could pull in more air, you could surge up that hill or maintain your pace. But the more your chest heaves, the more you struggle. You may even end up exhausted, bent over, gasping for air.

  当你爬到山顶或即将到达最快速度之前,你的肺就会进入高速运转。呼吸会变得短促且快速。如果你认为只要吸入更多的空气,你就可以维持你的步伐爬上那座山。但会发现你越喘气,你就会越难受。甚至可能最后筋疲力尽,弯下腰,大口地喘着粗气。
       "Runners think about training their heart and legs, but they rarely think about training their lungs," says Mindy Solkin, owner and head coach of The Running Center in New York City. "A strong respiratory system can improve your running. It's a simple equation: Better breathing equals more oxygen for your muscles, and that equals more endurance."

  “跑者普遍会考虑锻炼他们的心脏和腿,但他们很少锻炼他们的肺,”纽约跑步中心拥有者兼教练Mindy Solkin说,“一个强大的呼吸系统可以提高你的跑步速度。一个简单的公式可以说明这点:通畅的呼吸等同为你的肌肉补充更多的氧气,也等于更高的耐力。”

  Just as we strength-train our hamstrings and calves to improve our ability to power over hills, we can tone the muscles used for breathing. "Exercise improves the conditioning of the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, and the intercostal muscles, which lie between the ribs and enable you to inhale and exhale," says Everett Murphy, M.D., a runner and pulmonologist at Olathe Medical Center in Olathe, Kansas. "When you take a breath, 80 percent of the work is done by the diaphragm. If you strengthen your diaphragm, you may improve your endurance and be less likely to become fatigued."

  正如我们锻炼腿后肌和小腿来提高我们登山的能力,我们可以锻炼呼吸肌来帮助我们呼吸。“锻炼能改善我们对隔膜(位于肺和胃之间的肌肉,呼吸起作用)的调节,增强分隔腹部和胸部区域肌肉以及肋间肌肉(位于肋骨间使人能够呼气吸气)的强度,”美国堪萨斯州奥拉西医疗中心跑步和胸腔科医学博士Eveeret Murphy说,“当你深呼吸时,隔膜做了80%的工作。如果你加强你的隔膜,你可以提高你的耐力并使你疲劳的可能性降低。”

  This was backed up by researchers from the Centre for Sports Medicine and Human Performance at Brunel University in England, who recently measured fatigue levels of marathoners' respiratory muscles and leg muscles. They found a direct link-runners whose breathing was the most strained showed the most leg weakness-and concluded in their study that the harder the respiratory muscles had to work, the more the legs would struggle in a race.

  这理论得到了英国布鲁内尔大学体育医学和人类行为学研究中心研究者们的支持,最近在研究针对马拉松运动员呼吸肌以及大腿肌肉的疲劳等级时,他们发现呼吸急促与腿部力量不足有着直接的联系。结合研究结果,他们得出结论呼吸肌的工作越困难,腿在跑步过程中就会越难受。

  The key to preventing lung-and leg-fatigue is breathing more fully. "When you take deeper breaths, you use more air sacs in your lungs, which allows you to take in more oxygen to feed your muscles," says David Ross, M.D., a pulmonologist at UCLA Medical Center. "When I'm running, I concentrate on taking slow and deep breaths to strengthen my diaphragm."

  保护肺部和腿部疲劳的关键是使呼吸更充足。“当你深呼吸时,肺里的肺泡大量的被使用,它使你吸收到更多的氧气来满足肌肉的供给,”美国加州大学洛杉矶分校医疗中心医学博士David Ross说,“当我跑步时,我专注于慢跑并用深呼吸来强化我的隔膜。

  Most runners, says Solkin, are "chest breathers"-not "belly breathers." To help her clients see the difference, she has them run a mile at a pace that gets them huffing a bit. Then she has them stop and place one hand on their abdomen and one hand on their chest and watch. The lower hand should move with each breath, while the upper hand should remain relatively still (usually the opposite occurs). "Every time you breathe in, your belly should fill up like a balloon," says Solkin (see "Breathe Right"). "And every time you breathe out, that balloon should deflate. When you chest breathe, your shoulders get tense and move up and down. That's wasted energy-energy you should conserve for running."

  Solkin博士说:“大多数跑者是胸部呼吸而不是腹部呼吸。”为了让她的客户看到区别,她让他们先跑一英里,跑完后他们都已气喘吁吁。然后她让他们停下来并把一只手放到他们的腹部,一只手放在他们的胸部。下方的手必须在每一次呼吸时移动,而在上方的手保持相对静止(通常情况恰恰相反)。“每次你吸气时,你的腹部填满像个气球,”Solkin博士说,“每次呼气时,“气球”应该要缩小。当你胸部呼吸时,你的肩膀会变得紧张而前后移动。这会消耗掉为你跑步所保存的能量。

  Chest breathing can be a hard habit to break-especially while you're preoccupied with keeping pace or calculating splits. One way to make the switch easier is to work on belly breathing when you're not running, and the skill will eventually carry over to your running. To make this happen, some elite runners turn to Pilates, a program originally developed as a rehabilitation program for World War I soldiers. Pilates aims to increase flexibility, strengthen the core, and improve breathing. "I try to do Pilates twice a week," says 2004 Olympic marathoner Colleen de Reuck. "It stretches my intercostal muscles and lengthens my spine, which helps my breathing and my running."

  胸部呼吸是一个很难改正的习惯,特别是当你专注于保持步伐或估算距离的时候。有一个方法能使呼吸转化变得容易:当你不在跑步时用腹部呼吸,这个技巧可以用到你的跑步中。为了实现这一点,一些运动员精英开始学习普拉提的课程(最初于第一次世界大战用于士兵康复的课程)。普拉提课程的目的是为了增加人的灵活性,巩固人体核心,改善呼吸。“我每周两次普拉提,”04奥运会马拉松选手Colleen de Reuck说,“这能延伸我的肋间肌并延展我的脊椎,有助于我的呼吸和跑步。”
       "My athletes tell me 'my form is better, I'm not working so hard,'" says Pat Guyton, a Pilates instructor who teaches elite runners in Boulder, Colorado. "They mention less effort in the lungs-they're able to run farther before fatigue sets in."

  “我的运动员告诉我‘我的身材特别棒,但我没有卖力地在保持。’”一位任教精英跑者的普拉提教练Pat Guyton说,“肺部承担较少压力的情况下他们在疲劳到来前能跑的更远。”

  Breathe Right

  Here's how Mindy Solkin, a New York City-based coach, teaches runners to engage their diaphragms.

  正确的呼吸

  下面是纽约跑步中心教练Mindy Solkin教你如何学会利用自己的膈膜。

  Open Your Mouth

  Your mouth is larger than your nostrils, so it's more effective at taking in oxygen. Also, keeping your mouth open keeps your face more relaxed, which makes it easier to breathe deeply.

  张开你的嘴

  你的嘴巴要比你的鼻孔张的要大,这样更有效率地吸入氧气。并且,保持你的嘴巴张开,保持你的面部放松,这样能使更容易地深呼吸。

  Breathe in Patterns

  Coordinating your inhales and exhales with your footfalls develops diaphragmatic strength. Start with a 2-2 pattern-breathe in while stepping left, right; breathe out while stepping left, right. Advance to 3-3 (breathe in, step left, right, left; breathe out, step right, left, right), and then a 4-4 pattern.

  呼吸模式

  协调你的吸入和呼出伴着脚步,以此提升横膈膜的力量。开始时是2-2呼吸模式,当左右迈步一次时吸入;再一次左右迈步时呼出,循环。之后提升到3-3呼吸模式 (左右左,吸气,右左右,呼气),然后是4-4 呼吸模式。

关于华奥星空 - 华奥户外 - 隐私保护 - 网建服务 - 广告服务 - 招聘信息 - 联系我们
© 2003-2014 China Interactive Sports. All rights reserved. 北京华奥星空科技发展有限公司版权所有
网上传播视听节目许可证 编号:0105094 发证机关:国家广播电影电视总局
ICP经营许可证:京ICP证030713号 京公网安备11010102000807号
本网站由华奥星空(北京)信息技术有限公司提供制作及技术支持
客服及报障电话:4008102008 客服及报障邮箱:operationcenter@sports.cn